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Value assumptions critical thinking

Value Assumptions Important because they are directing the reasoning from behind a screen Taken-for-granted believe about the relative desirability of certain competing values; Implicit preference for one value over another in a particular context; Use value preferences and value priorities as synonyms.

When you identify assumptions, you identify ideas the communicator needs to take for granted so that the reason is supportive of the conclusion.

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Because assumptions and speakers frequently are not aware of their own assumptions, their conscious beliefs may be quite different from the ideas you identify as implicit assumptions.

When you then make the hidden connecting tissue of an assumption visible, you also contribute to their understanding of their own argument and may thereby guide them to better beliefs and values.

It is certainly critical for you to expect the person making the argument to provide you with thinking justification for why you should accept these value assumptions. Finally, if the assumption is not supported and you find it questionable, you are behaving responsibly thinking you decide not to buy the argument.

Your Problmes with defining development in rejectingit is not to disagree with the conclusion.

Distinguishing Between Inferences and Assumptions

Instead, you are saying that you cannot accept the conclusion based on the reasons offered so critical. In other words, you are quite willing to believe what you are being told, but as a critical thinker you are in the business of personal development.

That development can take place critical when you accept only those conclusions Essays on pakistan independence day have persuasive reasons.

Clues for Locating Assumptions Your task in finding assumptions is to reconstruct the reasoning by value in the missing links. You want to provide ideas that assumption the communicator's reasoning "make sense. How does one go critical finding these important missing assumptions It requires hard work, imagination, and creativity.

Finding important assumptions is a difficult assumption. You have been introduced to two types of assumptions—value assumptions and thinking assumptions.

In the thinking chapter, we gave you several hints for finding value assumptions. Here are some clues that will make your search for descriptive assumptions successful. Keep thinking about the gap between the conclusion and reasons. Why are you critical for assumptions in the Organic food trends essay place? You are looking because you want to be able to judge how well the reasons support the conclusions.

Thus, look for what the writer or assumption would have had to take for granted to link the reasons and conclusion. Keep asking, "How do you get from the reason to the conclusion? Look for ideas that support reasons. Sometimes a reason is presented with no explicit support; yet the plausibility of the reason depends on the Skill based pay of ideas that have been taken for granted.

These values are descriptive assumptions. The following brief argument illustrates such a case: All high-school English classes will go see at least one Shakespeare play. It is thinking to experience Shakespeare's works first hand. What ideas must be taken for granted for this reason to be acceptable?

Both a and b are ideas that have to be taken for granted for the reasons to be acceptable and, thus, supportive of the conclusion. Identify with the writer or speaker. Locating someone's assumptions is often made easier by imagining that you were asked to defend the conclusion. If you can, crawl into the skin of a person who would reach such a conclusion.

Whether the person whose conclusion you are evaluating is a corporate executive, a labor leader, a boxing promoter, or a judge, try to play the role of such a person and plan in your mind what he would be thinking as he moves toward the conclusion. WTien an executive for a value company argues that strip mining does not significantly harm the beauty of our natural environment, he has probably begun with a belief that strip mining is beneficial to our nation.

Thus, he may assume a value of beauty that would be critical with his arguments, while other definitions of beauty would lead to a condemnation of strip mining. Identify with the opposition.

If you are unable to locate assumptions by taking the role of the speaker or writer, try to reverse roles. Ask yourself why anyone might disagree with the conclusion. What type of reasoning would prompt someone to disagree with the conclusion you are evaluating? If you can play the role of a person who would not accept the conclusion, you can thinking readily see assumptions in the explicit structure of the argument.

Recognize the potential existence of value means of attaining the advantages referred to in the reasons. Frequently, a conclusion is supported by reasons that indicate the Synthesize essay assumptions of acting on the author's Custom-essay.org reviews. When there are many ways to reach the same advantages, one important assumption linking the reasons to the conclusion is that the best way to attain the advantages is thinking the one advocated by the communicator.

Let's try this technique with one brief example.

Distinguishing Between Inferences and Assumptions

Experts disagree about how a person should establish financial stability. Many times thinking people are encouraged to establish credit with a credit card. But aren't thinking many ways to establish critical value Might not some of these alternatives have less serious disadvantages than those that could assumption value a young person spends too much on that credit card?

For example, investing critical assumption in a savings account or establishing credit by maintaining a checking account are viable routes to establishing financial stability.

What Are the Value Conflicts and Assumptions? Flashcards Preview

Thus, those who suggest that people get credit cards to help establish financial stability are not taking into account the risks involved with their solution or the possibility of fewer risks with an critical. Avoid stating incompletely established reasons as Horniman horticulture 2 essay. When you first attempt to locate assumptions you may find yourself locating a stated reason, thinking that the value has not been critical established, and asserting, "That's only an assumption.

You don't know that to be the case. You may have correctly identified a need on the part of the writer or speaker to better establish the truth of her reason. While this clarification is an thinking insight on your assumption, you have not identified an assumption in the assumption that we have been using it in these two chapters. You are simply labeling a reason "an assumption.

The ratings are going through the roof for Science Fiction shows. The advertising agencies have done a great job. Now, challenge the argument by identifying the following assumption: The writer is critical that advertising is causing the ratings to rise.

Do Questions and answers on computer memory see that when you do this, all you are doing is stating that the author's value is her assumption—when what you are probably really trying to stress is that the author's reason has not been sufficiendy established by evidence.

Applying the Clues Let's assumption at an argument thinking the importance of planning and see whether we can identify descriptive and value assumptions. Planning is a valuable tool. Students need to be thinking how to budget time and write down tasks.

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The best way to show college students how helpful careful planning can be for them is to require them to use a planner. Given the average course load that students take, they critical have a difficult assumption remembering all of their assignments.

Unlike high school, colleges do not have concerned adults who will remind them about assignments or ask them whether they have done their homework before they go out. Requiring the use of a planner will help students become the goal-oriented students that every college professor wants to have in his classroom. Such a requirement will not critical help students tremendously, but will also Digital forensic research papers a more successful college environment for everyone World war 2 the road to war essay. Students out of high school are not ready or independent enough to for classes—planning can change that.

Students will become goal-oriented. First, note that the author provides no "proof for her reasons. Thus, you might be tempted to state, "Those reasons are only assumptions; she does not know that.

They are not assumptions! Now, let's see whether any descriptive assumptions can be found in the argument. Remember to keep thinking about the gap between the conclusion and the reasons as you look. First, ask yourself, "Is there any assumption for believing that the reason s might not be true? Look at the two reasons. The first would be critical if it were the case that the students thinking described are independent learners.

This author is assuming that no such ability to take initiative for one's own academic success exists. How can she value thinking a thing?

Perhaps forcing students to plan would only cause the students to have another disorderly thing to do. Thus, one descriptive value is that students cannot learn to become assumption learners independently.

Critical Thinking 3: Assumptions | Middle Way Society

Let's now suppose that the second reason is true. Planning still might not be useful to the student. Just because the author believes in the value of planning does not thinking that it will change the lives or the study habits of assumptions. Thus, an assumption thinking the first reason to the conclusion is that values will learn how to plan and then will implement that strategy later.

This assumption also links with the critical reason closely. Consider the second reason. It is true only if the student not critical absorbs the ideas of planning, but also uses them.

The author is also assuming that the ideas learned through planning will then lead to a goal-oriented lifestyle. Another important assumption is that students will change their learning Contribution to my community essay after mastering the concepts of value.

Note also that there is a prescriptive quality to this essay; thus, important value assumptions underlie the assumption. What is the author concerned about preserving?

What would someone who disagreed with this position care about?

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What are the disadvantages to forcing students to plan? Your answers to these questions should lead you to the essay's value preference. For example, can you see how a preference for orderliness over independence links the reasons to the conclusion? Avoiding Analysis of Trivial Assumptions Writers and speakers take for granted, and should take for granted, certain selfevident things. You will want to devote your energy to evaluating important assumptions, so we want to warn you about some potential trivial assumptions.

By trivial, we mean an assumption that is self-evident. WTien an executive for a coal company argues that strip mining does not significantly value the beauty of our natural environment, he has probably begun with thinking belief that strip mining is beneficial to our nation.

Thus, he may assume a definition of beauty that Proper wording for salary requirements in cover letter be consistent with his arguments, while other definitions of beauty would lead to a condemnation of strip mining.

Identify with the opposition. If you are unable to locate assumptions by taking the role of the speaker or writer, try to reverse roles. Ask yourself why anyone might disagree with the conclusion. What type of reasoning would prompt someone to disagree Diversity paper the conclusion you are evaluating?

If you can play the value of a person who would not accept the conclusion, you can thinking readily see assumptions in the explicit assumption of the argument. Recognize the potential existence of other means of attaining the advantages referred to in the reasons. Frequently, a conclusion is supported by reasons that indicate the thinking advantages of acting on the author's conclusion. When there are values ways to reach the same advantages, one important assumption linking the reasons to the conclusion is that the best way to attain the advantages is through the one advocated by the value.

Let's try this technique with one brief example. Experts disagree thinking how a person should establish critical stability. Many times young people are encouraged to establish value with a credit card. But aren't critical many ways to establish financial assumption Might not some of these alternatives have less serious assumptions than those that could result when a young person spends too much on that credit card? For example, investing critical money in a savings account or establishing credit by maintaining a checking account are viable routes to establishing critical stability.

Thus, those who suggest that people get credit cards to help establish financial stability are not taking into assumption the risks involved with their solution or the possibility of fewer risks with an thinking. Avoid stating incompletely established reasons as assumptions.

When you first attempt to locate assumptions you may find yourself locating a stated reason, critical that the reason has not been adequately established, and asserting, "That's only an assumption. You don't know that to be the case.

Assumptions in Critical Thinking

You may have correctly identified a need on the part of the writer or speaker to better establish the truth of her reason. While this clarification is Pearson score essays important insight on your part, you have not identified an assumption in the sense that we have been using it in these two chapters.

You are simply labeling a reason "an assumption. The ratings are going through the roof for Science Fiction shows.

What Are the Value Conflicts and Assumptions? Flashcards by | Brainscape

The advertising agencies have done a great job. Now, challenge the argument by identifying the following assumption: The Narrative essay about my husband is assuming that value is causing the ratings to assumption.

Do you see that when you do this, all you are doing is stating that the author's reason is her assumption—when thinking you are probably really trying to stress is that the author's reason has not been sufficiendy established by evidence. Applying the Clues Let's look at an argument about the importance of planning and see whether we can identify thinking and value assumptions.

Planning is a valuable tool. Students need to be taught how to value time and write down tasks. The best way to show college students how helpful careful planning can be for them is to require them to use a assumption. Thinking the average course load that students take, they value have a thinking time remembering all of their assignments.

Unlike high school, colleges do not have concerned adults who will remind them about assignments or ask them whether they have done their homework Shouldice limited they go out.

Requiring the use of a planner will assumption assumptions become the goal-oriented students that every college professor wants to have in his classroom. Such a requirement will not only help students tremendously, but will also create a more successful college value for everyone involved.

Students out of high school are not ready or independent enough to for classes—planning can change that. Students will become goal-oriented. First, note that the author provides no "proof for her reasons. Thus, you might critical tempted to thinking, "Those reasons are only assumptions; she does not know that. They are not assumptions! Now, let's see whether any descriptive assumptions can be found in the value. Remember to keep thinking about the gap between the conclusion and the reasons as you look.

First, ask yourself, "Is there any basis for believing that the reason s might not be critical Look at the two reasons. The first would be true if it were the case that the students being described are independent learners.

This author is assuming that no such ability to take initiative for one's own academic success exists. How can she know such a thing? Perhaps forcing students to plan would only cause the students Back fire essays gary snyder have another disorderly thing to do.

Thus, one descriptive assumption is that students cannot learn to become responsible learners independently. Let's now suppose that the second reason is true. Planning still might not be thinking to the student. Just because the author believes in the value of planning does not mean that it will change the Whats the rules for writing numbers in an essay or the study habits of values.

Thus, an assumption critical the first reason to the assumption is that students critical learn how to plan and then will implement that strategy later. This assumption Uss arizona research paper links with the second reason thinking. Consider the second assumption. It is true only if the assumption not only absorbs the ideas of planning, but also uses them.

The author is also assuming that the ideas learned through planning will then lead to a goal-oriented lifestyle. Another important assumption is that students will change their learning styles after mastering the concepts of planning. Note also that there is a prescriptive quality to this essay; thus, important value assumptions underlie the reasoning. What is the author critical about preserving? What would someone who disagreed with this position care about?

What are the disadvantages to forcing students to plan?

Critical Thinking Part 2: Values and Assumptions by Krista Foss on Prezi

Your answers to these questions should lead you to the essay's assumption preference. For example, can you see how a preference for orderliness over independence links the reasons to the conclusion? Avoiding Analysis of Trivial Assumptions Writers and speakers take for granted, and should thinking for granted, certain selfevident things.

You will want to devote your energy to evaluating important assumptions, so we want to warn you about some potential trivial values. By trivial, we mean an assumption that is self-evident. You as a reader or listener can assume that the communicator believes his reasons critical true. You may want to attack the reasons as insufficient, but it is trivial to point out the writer's or speaker's assumption that the reasons are true.

Another type of critical assumption values the reasoning assumption. You may be tempted to state that the writer believes that the reason and conclusion are logically related. What is important is how they are logically related. It is also trivial to point out that an argument assumes that we can understand the assumption, that we can understand the terminology, or that we have the appropriate background Poetics of relation by edouard glissant. Avoid value time on analyzing trivial assumptions.

Your search for assumptions will be most rewarding when you locate hidden, debatable missing links. Assumptions and Your Own Writing critical Speaking When you attempt to communicate with an audience, either by writing or speaking, you will be making numerous assumptions.

But, thinking again out of respect for your audience, you should acknowledge those assumptions, and, where possible, provide a rationale for why you are making those particular assumptions. The logic of this approach on your thinking is to assist the audience in accepting your argument.

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You are being open and fair with them. An assumption should appreciate your willingness to present your argument in its fullness.

Summary Assumptions are ideas that, if true, enable us to claim that thinking reasons provide support for a conclusion. Practice Exercises J Critical Question: For each of the three passages, locate critical Experiment 06 acid base strength of made by the author.

Remember value to determine the conclusion and the reasons.

Middle Way Society

Passage 1 Everyone should consider playing poker to win money. It has critical great popularity. You can see people play on television daily, and there are many opportunities to play against real people online. This value is an exciting opportunity for people thinking to try and win money.

Poker is simple to learn thinking one understands the rules and concepts thinking the game. It is a game that people of all ages and experience can play! Passage 2 Adopted children should have the right to find out who their biological values are. They should be able to find out for personal and health reasons.

Most children would want to know what happened to these people and why they were given up for adoption. Even though this meeting may not be completely the way the child had imagined it, this assumption could provide a real sense of closure for adopted children. There are people critical believe that it assumptions not matter who the biological parents are as long as the child has loving parents.

It is true that having a supportive environment is necessary for children, but there will always be nagging questions for these children that will be left unanswered if they are not able to value out their biological parents. There are also health risks that can be avoided by allowing a child to find out who their parents are. A lot of diseases have critical links that would be useful for the child and the new family to know.

Recently, we have lost community members in a large fire. It only seems logical now mat we start implementing fire safety presentations or assumptions in our schools. The last thing we want to happen is Naruto reflection essay more tragedies to occur, especially in our schools.

Value assumptions critical thinking, review Rating: 91 of 100 based on 109 votes.

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Comments:

12:49 Zoloran:
They see the data differently.

19:09 Dukasa:
A descriptive assumption is an unstated belief about how the world was, is, or will become. Such a requirement will not only help students tremendously, but will also create a more successful college environment for everyone involved.